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Richard J. DiPaolo, Ph.D.

Molecular Microbiology and Immunology


Post-Doctoral Fellowship, NIAID, National Institutes of Health
Ph.D., Washington University in Saint Louis, 2002
B.A., University of Chicago, 1995


My laboratory is interested in establishing mouse models of human diseases to develop strategies to suppress chronic inflammatory diseases. Successful strategies may be useful to develop new therapies for autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases. We recently developed a mouse model of autoimmune gastritis, which involves immune-mediated destruction of the stomach. Autoimmune gastritis is a common disease in humans, and our mouse model mimics many aspects of human disease. Recently we discovered that chronic inflammation ultimately leads to the development of gastric cancer, and disease in mice shares many key features associated with gastric cancer development in humans. We are using combinations of cellular and molecular assays to understand how a subset of T cells, known as regulatory T cells (Tregs) affects the various stages of ongoing disease in our gastritis/gastric cancer model. Furthermore, we are identifying cytokines that play an important role in regulating the development of gastritis and its progression to gastric cancer. Some of these cytokines act on immune cells, and regulate inflammation, and some of these cytokines act on gastric epithelial cells, and regulate their potential to become cancer cells. We are interested in both of these activities and are investigating strategies to manipulate the activities of Tregs and cytokines to suppress chronic inflammation and to reduce the risk of cancer.

We are also studying immune responses to vaccines and infections. We currently have an ongoing project to examine the T and B cell responses to vaccine and infections. We use high-throughput sequencing technology to identify receptors expressed by T and B cells responding to vaccines and infections. We refer to this as “immune profiling” receptors responding to vaccines and infections, and we are currently immune profiling receptors in humans and in ‘humanized mice’. Our goal in this project is to understand which immune receptors are used to recognize different vaccines and infectious agents.

Labs and Facilities

Lab Students
Lab members include Christine Noto, Kyle Wolf, Eric Ford, Kevin Bockerstett, Rich DiPaolo, and Nick DiPaolo.


Interferon-y directly induces gastric epithelial cell death and it required progression to metaplasia.
Osaki LH, Bockerstett KA, Wong CF, Ford EL, Madison BB, DiPaolo RJ, Mills JC.
The Journal of Pathology, 2018 Dec 3. doi: 10.1002/path.5214.  PMID: 30511397

Identifying and tracking low-frequency virus-specific TCR Clonotypes using high-throughput sequencing.
Wolf K, Hether T, Gilchuk P, Kumar A, Rajeh A, Schiebout C, Maybruck J, Buller RM, Ahn TH, Joyce S, DiPaolo RJ.
Cell Rep. 2018 Nov 27;25(9):2369-2378.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.11.009.  PMID: 30485806

CD4+ T cells mediate protection against Zika associated severe disease in a mouse model of infection. 
Hassert M, Wolf KJ, Schwetye KE, DiPaolo RJ, Brien JD, Pinto AK.
PLos Pathogens, 2018 Sep 13;14(9):e1007237. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007237. eCollection 2018 Sep.  PMID: 30212537

Molecular Characterization of Gastric Epithelial Cells using Flow Cytometry.
Bockerstett KA, Wong CF, Koehm S, Ford EL, DiPaolo RJ
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, April 6, 2018. PMID: 29642375

Interleukin-17A Promotes Parietal Cell Atrophy by Inducing Apoptosis.
Kevin A. Bockerstett, Luciana C. Osaki, Christine Peterson, Thanh-Long Nguyen, Eric L. Ford, Jason C. Mills, James Goldenring, Richard DiPaolo
Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2018 Jan 2;5(4):678-690.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2017.12.012. eCollection 2018.

Regulatory T cells are expanded by teriparatide treatment in humans and mediate intermittent PTH-induced bone anabolism in mice.
Mingcan Yu, Patrizia D'Amelio, Abdul Tyagi, Chiara Vaccaro, Jau-Yi Li, Emory Hsu, Ilaria Buondonno, Francesca Sassi, Jonathan Adams, M. Neale Weitzmann, Richard DiPaolo and Roberto Pacifici. 
EMBO, January 19, 2018.  PMID: 29158349

The Regulation of Gastric Carcinogenesis by Inflammatory Cytokines.
Bockerstett KA, DiPaolo RJ.
Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, March 14, 2017.  PMID: 28560288

Immunosequencing: Accelerating Discovery in Immunology and Medicine. 
Wolf KJ, DiPaolo RJ.
Current Trends in Immunology, November 2016.

Conventional and Regulatory CD4+ T Cells That Share Identical TCRs Are Derived from Common Clones. 
Wolf KJ, Emerson RO, Pingel J, Buller RM, DiPaolo RJ
PLoS One. 2016 Apr 21;11(4):e0153705. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153705. PMID: 27100298

A Bone Anabolic Effect of RANKL in a Murine Model of Osteoporosis Mediated Through FoxP3+ CD8 T Cells.
Buchwald ZS, Yang C, Nellore S, Shashkova EV, Davis JL, Cline A, Ko J, Novack DV, DiPaolo R, Aurora R.
J Bone Miner Res. 2015 Aug;30(8):1508-22. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.2472. PMID: 25656537

Quantifying Ca2+ current and permeability in ATP-gated P2X7 receptors. 
Liang X, Samways DS, Wolf K, Bowles EA, Richards JP, Bruno J, Dutertre S, DiPaolo RJ, Egan TM.
J Biol Chem. 2015 Mar 20;290(12):7930-42. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.627810. PMID: 25645917

Induced Expression of FCγRIIIa on CD4+ T cells Triggers Generation of IFN-γhigh Subset.
Chauhan AK, Chen C, Moore TL, DiPaolo RJ.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry 2015 Feb 20;290(8):5127-40 PMID: 25556651

Antigen specific TGF-β-induced regulatory T cells suppress late stages of autoimmune gastritis. 
Nguyen TL, Makhlouf NT, Kesman RA, Anthony B, Teague RM, DiPaolo RJ.
PLOS One.  August 13, 2014. PMID: 25119105

A new mouse model of inflammation induced gastritis cancer.
Nguyen TL and DiPaolo R.
Oncoimmunology, October, 2013. PMID: 24498543

Osteoclast-induced Foxp3+CD8+ T-Cells limit bone loss in mice.
Buchwald ZS, Kiesel JR, DiPaolo R, Yang C, Novack DV, Aurora R. 
Bone. September, 2013. PMID: 23756229

Autoimmune gastritis mediated by CD4+ T cells promotes the development of gastric cancer.
Nguyen TL, Khurana SS, Bellone CJ, Capoccia BJ, Sagartz JE, Kesman RA, Mills JC, DiPaolo, RJ.
Cancer Research, 2013, Apr 1;73(7):2117-26.  PMID: 23378345

Durable adoptive immunotherapy for leukemia produced by manipulation of multiple regulatory pathways of CD8+ T-cell tolerance.
Berrien-Elliott MM, Jackson SR, Meyer JM, Rouskey CJ, Nguyen TL, Yagita H, Greenberg P, DiPaolo RJ, Teague RM.
Cancer Research, 2013 Jan 15;73(2):605-16.  PMID: 23188506

PTH expands short-term murine hemopoietic stem cells through T cells.
Li JY, Adams J, Calvi LM, Lane TF, DiPaolo R, Weitzmann MN, Pacifici R. 
Blood. 2012 November 22;120(22):4352-62. PMID: 22955916

Osteoclast activated FoxP3+ CD8+ T-cells suppress bone resorption.
Buchwald, ZS, Kiesel, JR, DiPaolo, RJ, Pagadala MS, and Aurora, R.
PLoS ONE. May 2012 7(6): e381990. PMID: 22701612

Antigen-Specific TGF-β–Induced Regulatory T Cells Secrete Chemokines, Regulate T Cell Trafficking, and Suppress Ongoing Autoimmunity.
Thanh-Long M. Nguyen, Nicole L. Sullivan, Mark Ebel, Ryan M. Teague, and Richard J. DiPaolo.
The Journal of Immunology, 2011 187:1745-1753. PMID: 21746962

Pre-differentiated Th1 and Th17 effector T cells in autoimmune gastritis: Ag-specific regulatory T cells are more potent suppressors than polyclonal regulatory T cells.
Huter EN, Stummvoll GH, DiPaolo RJ, Glass DD, Shevach EM. 
International Immunopharmacology, 2009 May;9(5):540-5. PMID: 19539565

CD4+ T cell-development in a mouse expressing a transgenic TCR derived from a Treg.
DiPaolo RJand Shevach EM.
The European Journal of Immunology, 39(1)234-40, Jan, 2009. PMID: 19065648

Cutting Edge: Antigen specific TGF beta-induced T cells suppress Th17-mediated autoimmune disease.
Huter EN, Stummvoll GH, DiPaolo RJ, Glass DD, Shevach EM. 
The The Journal of Immunology, 181(12):8209-13, Dec 15, 2008. PMID: 1905237

Availability of autoantigenic epitopes controls the phenotype, severity, and penetrance in TCR Tg autoimmune gastritis.
Levin D, DiPaolo RJ, Brinster C, Revilleza MJ, Boyd LF, Teyton L, Natarajan K, Mage MG, Shevach EM, Margulies DH.
European Journal of Immunology, 38(12):3339-53, Dec 1, 2008. PMID: 19039784

Role of TGF-beta in the induction of FoxP3 expression and T regulatory cell function.
Shevach EM, Davidson TS, DiPaolo RJ, Andersson J.  
Journal of Clinical Immunology, 2008 Nov;28(6):640-6. Pubmed abstract link: 18810612

Th1, th2, and th17 effector T cell-induced autoimmune gastritis differs in pathological pattern and in susceptibility to suppression by regulatory T cells.
Stummvoll GH, DiPaolo RJ, Huter EN, Davidson TS, Glass D, Ward JM, Shevach EM. 
The Journal of Immunology, 2008 Aug 1;181(3):1908-16. Pubmed Abstract link: 18641328

Autoantigen-Specific TGFbeta-Induced Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Prevent Autoimmunity by Inhibiting Dendritic Cells from Activating Autoreactive T Cells.
DiPaolo RJ, Brinster C, Davidson TS, Andersson J, Glass D and Shevach EM.
The Journal of Immunology 2007 179:4685-4693. Pubmed Abstract link: 17878367

Cutting Edge: IL-2 is essential for TGF-beta-mediated induction of Foxp3+ T regulatory cells.
Davidson TS, DiPaolo RJ, Andersson J, Shevach EM. 
The Journal of Immunology, 2007 Apr 1;178(7):4022-6. Pubmed Abstract link: 17371955

Activated CD4+CD25+ T cells selectively kill B lymphocytes.
Zhao DM, Thornton AM, DiPaolo RJ, Shevach EM. 
Blood, 2006 May 15;107(10):3925-32. Pubmed Abstract link: 16418326

CD4+CD25+ T cells prevent the development of organ-specific autoimmune disease by inhibiting the differentiation of autoreactive effector T cells.
DiPaolo RJ, Glass DD, Bijwaard KE, Shevach EM. 
The Journal of Immunology, 2005 Dec 1;175(11):7135-42. Pubmed Abstract link: 16301616

 Regulatory T cells suppress CD8+ T cell responses induced by direct priming and cross-priming and moderate immunodominance disparities.
Haeryfar SM, DiPaolo RJ, Tscharke DC, Bennink JR, Yewdell JW.
J Immunol. 2005 Mar 15;174(6):3344-51. Pubmed Abstract link: 15749866



NIH RO1: 1RO1DK110406-01 (PI: DiPaolo)
Title: The Role of EBI3 in Regulating Gastritis and Gastric Carcinogenesis.
Role: Principal Investigator
Period: 07/16 – 06/21

Federal Bureau of Investigations 
Title: Immune Profiling to Determine Exposure to Vaccine and Infection
Role: Principal Investigator
Period: 04/15 – 05/19

NIH-RO1 AR064821
Title: A Negative Feedback Loop Between Osteoclasts and CD8+ T cells
Role: Co-Investigator
Period: 04/14 – 03/19

NIH/NIAID HHSN27220130021I
Title: Vaccine and Treatment Evaluations Units Task for Zika Virus Trials
Role: Co-Investigator
Period: 09/17 - 02/19


American Gastroenterological Association
R. Robert & Sally Funderburg Research Award in Gastric Cancer
Title: The Role of IL-22 in Promoting Inflammation Induced Gastric Cancer
Role: Principal Investigator
Period: 01/16 – 01/18

American Cancer Society 22720-RSG-12-171-01-LIB
Title: The Regulation of Metaplasia in a Model of Autoimmune Gastritis
Role: Principal Investigator
Period: 07/12 – 06/17

Saint Louis University President's Research Fund
Title: The Role of IL-22 and IL-22 Producing T Cells in Promoting Gastric Cancer
Role: Principle Investigator
Period: 06/01/2015 – 05/30/2016

NIH-RO1 AI098114-01
Title: T cell Activation by Immune Complexes and Complement in Autoimmunity
Role: Key Person
Period: 06/12 – 05/15

NIH-RO1 AR54625
Title: The role of PTH in T cell mediated bone metabolism
Role: Co-Investigator
Period: 09/12 – 08/15

American Gastroenterological Association Pilot Research Award
Title: Determining the Effects of Gastritis on the Gastric Microbiome
Role: Principal Investigator
Period: 07/14 – 06/15

Central Intelligence Agency HDTRA1-12C-0051
Title: Immunological Profiling to Distinguish Infection from Vaccination
Role: Co-Investigator
Period: 09/12 – 08/15

Saint Louis University President's Research Fund
Title: A novel mouse model to measure vaccine specific T effector and T regulatory responses
Role: Principle Investigator
Period: 03/0/2013 – 07/30/2014

Washington University - Digestive Disease Research Core Center Grant (P30 DK52574)
Title: The Roles of IL-27/IL-35 in Inflammation Induced Gastric Epithelial Cell Changes
Role: Principle Investigator
Period: 05/01/2012 – 04/30/2013

Saint Louis University Medical School Seed Grant
Title: The Role of IL-35 in Treg-Mediated Suppression of Arthritis
Role: Principle Investigator
Period: 05/01/2011 – 05/30/2012

Arthritis National Research Foundation
Title: Adoptively Transferring GPI-specific Regulatory T Cells to Treat the Effector Phase of Arthritis
Role: Principle Investigator
Period: 06/01/2010 – 05/30/2011

Saint Louis University President's Research Award
Title: Large scale sequence analysis to determine the extent of overlap between T cell receptors expressed by T regulatory cells and non-regulatory cells.
Role: Principle Investigator
Period: 02/01/2010 – 02/20/2011

Arthritis National Research Foundation
Title: Adoptively Transferring GPI-specific Regulatory T Cells to Treat the Effector Phase of Arthritis
Role: Principle Investigator
Period: 06/01/2009 – 05/30/2010